Anismus is the failure of the normal relaxation of pelvic floor muscles during attempted defecation. It can occur in both children and adults, and in both men and women although it is more common in women. It can be caused by physical defects or it can occur for other reasons or unknown reasons. Anismus that has a behavioral cause could be viewed as having similarities with parcopresis , or psychogenic fecal retention. Symptoms include tenesmus the sensation of incomplete emptying of the rectum after defecation has occurred and constipation. Retention of stool may result in fecal loading retention of a mass of stool of any consistency or fecal impaction retention of a mass of hard stool. Liquid stool may leak around a fecal impaction, possibly causing degrees of liquid fecal incontinence.
Hemorrhoids: From basic pathophysiology to clinical management
New Protocol to Treat Anal Fissures | Columbia University Department of Surgery
Anal canal , the terminal portion of the digestive tract , distinguished from the rectum because of the transition of its internal surface from a mucous membrane layer endodermal to one of skinlike tissue ectodermal. The anal canal is 2. The canal is divided into three areas: the upper part, with longitudinal folds called rectal columns; the lower portion, with internal and external constrictive muscles sphincters to control evacuation of feces ; and the anal opening itself. The anal canal connects with the rectum at the point where it passes through a muscular pelvic diaphragm. The upper region has 5 to 10 rectal columns, each column containing a small artery and vein. These are the terminal portions of the blood vessels that furnish the rectal and anal areas; they are susceptible to enlargement, commonly known as hemorrhoids. The mucous membrane of the upper portion is similar to that in the rest of the large intestine ; it contains mucus-producing and absorptive cells.
Division of Colorectal Surgery
This review discusses the pathophysiology, epidemiology, risk factors, classification, clinical evaluation, and current non-operative and operative treatment of hemorrhoids. Hemorrhoids are defined as the symptomatic enlargement and distal displacement of the normal anal cushions. The most common symptom of hemorrhoids is rectal bleeding associated with bowel movement.
Language: English French. The present review examines the current understanding of fecal incontinence and provides a practical approach to the investigation and management of this condition. A special emphasis is placed on specialized testing, focusing on indications and impact on guiding management. It is estimated that between 0.